How Humans see data
last updated: Nov 20, 2023
Lovely talk by John Rauser at Velocity Conference:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fSgEeI2Xpdc
 Bill Cleveland's The Elements of Graphing Data
 three visual operations of pattern perception
 detection
 assembly
 estimation
 three tasks we try to complete with a graph, in order of difficulty:
 discrimination (tell one from another)
 ranking (is x > y?)
 ratioing (x is about 3 times bigger than y)
 the best charts let you do all three
 three visual operations of pattern perception
 "efficient comparison between data sets is almost always the purpose of visualizing data"
 "this table might be the single most important thing that you can know about visualizing data:
Ordering elementary tasks by accuracy, according to theoretical arguments and experimental results. Graphs should exploit tasks as high in the ordering as possible. The tasks are ordered from most accurate to least:
 Position along a common scale
 Position on identical but nonaligned scales
 Length
 Angle
 Slope (with Ï´ not too close to 0, pi/2 or pi radians)
 Area
 Volume
 Density
 Color Saturation
 Color Hue
 note: in the original table, Angle and Slope are show as equally accurate, as are Volume, Density, and Color Saturation
 The default order for a categorical variable (often alphabetical) is almost never appropriate: consider the order intentionally
 stacking anything is nearly always a mistake
 almost always you'd do better with two charts that are each accurate
 stacking makes the reader decode lengths, which is less precise than position on a common scale
 pie charts
 the reason we all know that pie charts are bad is that they encode data as an angle
 they encode so few numbers that a table is better
 comparison is trivial on a common scale
 Question: did the spike occur at the same time in each chart?
 answer: no, but it's not easy to tell, you have to look back and forth and remember a value
 We can do better by putting them on a common scale:
 but now you see why people usually don't do this: the magnitude is v different.
 There's an easy fix:

 standardize each series by subtracting its mean and dividing by it's std deviation
 it's true that we have lost some information: we have lost the absolute value of the spikes
 therefore, sometimes you want the first graph, and other times the last
 software should make it easy to switch back and forth
 it's true that we have lost some information: we have lost the absolute value of the spikes
 standardize each series by subtracting its mean and dividing by it's std deviation
 The dashboard metaphor is fundamentally flawed
 The set of values that you want to see is so wide and varied that there cannot be a static set of metrics that successfully encodes them
 The affordances for transforming, rearranging, and replotting data are all complex, clunky and slow
 I think there's a big opportunity to fix it
 if you want to show how two metrics move, there is no better tool than a scatterplot
 gives an example of taking two time series charts, removing time as a variable, and plotting them together as a scatterplot; which demonstrates that the service's latency is bottlenecked on the dependency
 "I don't know of software that makes it easy to make comparisons like this"
 gives an example of taking two time series charts, removing time as a variable, and plotting them together as a scatterplot; which demonstrates that the service's latency is bottlenecked on the dependency
 growth charts usually aren't
 if you care about growth, plot the derivative
 Assembly
 picking up groups from a chart
 humans powerfully pull groups and meaning from visual data
 we strongly prefer to see groups in data
 Detection
 recognizing that a geometric object represents a value
 ex look at a scatterplot, and see that the dot means the x value on the x axis and the y value on the y axis
 not as trivial as it might seem
 recognizing that a geometric object represents a value
 A few more useful results
 Weber's law: the "Just Noticeable Difference" is proportional to the size of the initial stimuli
 ex: telling 10 from 20 is much easier than telling 100 from 110 despite the difference being the same
 This is why grid lines are useful!
 You are best at detecting variations in slope when you are near 45*
 banking to 45: set the aspect ratio of your plots so that the angle of the dominant lines is close to 45
 Should I include 0 on my scale?
 shows a graph where the value is very high, and demonstrates that if you stretch the y axis to zero, you lose the ability to distinguish differences between the points
 Q: Should I include 0 on my scale?
 A: Relying on the preattentive perception of size or intensity? Yes, otherwise you will mislead
 A: Using position? It's up to you.
 Gives an example of a dot plot
 "in fact (in this case) it's a good idea to do so because it gives you more resolution"
 in a bar chart, an axis has to start at zero
 because people will compare the size of the bars
 not the case with a scatterplot
 Weber's law: the "Just Noticeable Difference" is proportional to the size of the initial stimuli